Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in the body, usually in the legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling. Sometimes there are no noticeable symptoms.
Deep vein thrombosis can be serious because blood clots in the veins can break loose. The clots can then travel through the bloodstream and get stuck in the lungs, blocking blood flow (pulmonary embolism). When DVT and pulmonary embolism occur together, it's called venous thromboembolism (VTE).
A pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a blood clot gets stuck in an artery in the lung, blocking blood flow to part of the lung. Blood clots most often start in the legs and travel up through the right side of the heart and into the lungs. This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
The North American Thrombosis Forum (NATF) is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization incorporated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. NATF is dedicated to improving the lives of those affected by blood clots and related diseases. Through our comprehensive resources and innovative programming, we strive to educate patients and healthcare providers about thrombosis and its complications.
Arterial thrombosismay be caused by a hardening of the arteries, called arteriosclerosis. This happens when fatty or calcium deposits cause artery walls to thicken. This can lead to a buildup of fatty material (called plaque) in the artery walls. This plaque can suddenly burst (rupture), followed by a blood clot.
Arterial thrombosis can occur in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary arteries). This can lead to a heart attack. When arterial thrombosis occurs in a blood vessel in the brain, it can lead to a stroke.
Thrombosis can block the blood flow in both veins and arteries. Complications depend on where the thrombosis is located. The most serious problems include stroke, heart attack, and serious breathing problems.
Arteries carry blood from your heart to your organs; veins send it back to your heart. Sometimes the smooth flow of blood through these "pipes" slows down or gets blocked. Or, there's damage inside a blood vessel. That's when blood cells can stick together and form a clot. Doctors call this thrombosis. Serious problems can happen, depending on where the clot is.
A "deep vein" is farther inside your body, away from your skin. DVT mainly happens in your leg or pelvis (lower-extremity thrombosis), but you can get it in your arm or shoulder (upper-extremity thrombosis), too. Small clots sometimes dissolve on their own. Big clots that don't move or go away can block blood flow in the vein. They're dangerous if they break off because they could travel to your lungs.
The two sets of jugular veins in your neck bring blood from your head and neck back to your heart. Clots tend to form in these veins when you have a central line in them. Cancer, surgery, or using IV drugs can also cause jugular vein thrombosis. These clots might break loose, travel to your lungs, and become PEs.
A blood clot narrows or blocks the veins that carry blood from your liver to your heart. It's not the same as portal vein thrombosis, but it has some of the same symptoms, including a large spleen, swollen belly, and bleeding. The main problem is with your liver. It doesn't work as well as it should. If it's very damaged, you could need a liver transplant.
UpToDate: "Patient education: Stroke symptoms and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)," "Cerebral venous thrombosis: Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis," "May-Thurner syndrome," "Acute portal vein thrombosis in adults: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management."
Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries (arterial thrombosis). Venous thrombosis (sometimes called DVT, deep vein thrombosis) leads to a blood clot in the affected part of the body, while arterial thrombosis (and, rarely, severe venous thrombosis) affects the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery (ischemia and necrosis). A piece of either an arterial or a venous thrombus can break off as an embolus, which could then travel through the circulation and lodge somewhere else as an embolism. This type of embolism is known as a thromboembolism. Complications can arise when a venous thromboembolism (commonly called a VTE) lodges in the lung as a pulmonary embolism. An arterial embolus may travel further down the affected blood vessel, where it can lodge as an embolism.
Budd-Chiari syndrome is the blockage of a hepatic vein or of the hepatic part of the inferior vena cava. This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain, ascites and enlarged liver. Treatment varies between therapy and surgical intervention by the use of shunts.
Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal vein, which can lead to portal hypertension and reduction of the blood supply to the liver. It usually happens in the setting of another disease such as pancreatitis, cirrhosis, diverticulitis or cholangiocarcinoma.
Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by a thrombus. This tends to lead to reduced drainage from the kidney..mw-parser-output cite.citationfont-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word.mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .citation:targetbackground-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133).mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon abackground:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-codecolor:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;color:#d33.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorcolor:#d33.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inherit"Renal vein thrombosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body and seizures. The diagnosis is usually made with a CT or MRI scan. The majority of persons affected make a full recovery. The mortality rate is 4.3%.
Jugular vein thrombosis is a condition that may occur due to infection, intravenous drug use or malignancy. Jugular vein thrombosis can have a varying list of complications, including: systemic sepsis, pulmonary embolism, and papilledema. Though characterized by a sharp pain at the site of the vein, it can prove difficult to diagnose, because it can occur at random.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a specialised form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, where there is thrombosis of the cavernous sinus of the basal skull dura, due to the retrograde spread of infection and endothelial damage from the danger triangle of the face. The facial veins in this area anastomose with the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins of the orbit, which drain directly posteriorly into the cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure. Staphyloccoal or Streptococcal infections of the face, for example nasal or upper lip pustules may thus spread directly into the cavernous sinus, causing stroke-like symptoms of double vision, squint, as well as spread of infection to cause meningitis."Guidelines Cavernous sinus thrombosis" (PDF).
Arterial thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within an artery. In most cases, arterial thrombosis follows rupture of atheroma (a fat-rich deposit in the blood vessel wall), and is therefore referred to as atherothrombosis. Arterial embolism occurs when clots then migrate downstream and can affect any organ. Alternatively, arterial occlusion occurs as a consequence of embolism of blood clots originating from the heart ("cardiogenic" emboli). The most common cause is atrial fibrillation, which causes a blood stasis within the atria with easy thrombus formation, but blood clots can develop inside the heart for other reasons too as infective endocarditis.
Thrombosis prevention is initiated with assessing the risk for its development. Some people have a higher risk of developing thrombosis and its possible development into thromboembolism. Some of these risk factors are related to inflammation. "Virchow's triad" has been suggested to describe the three factors necessary for the formation of thrombosis: stasis of blood, vessel wall injury, and altered blood coagulation. Some risk factors predispose for venous thrombosis while others increase the risk of arterial thrombosis. Newborn babies in the neonatal period are also at risk of a thromboembolism.
The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophilia, endothelial cell injury, and disturbed blood flow. Generally speaking the risk for thrombosis increases over the life course of individuals, depending on life style factors like smoking, diet, and physical activity, the presence of other diseases like cancer or autoimmune disease, while also platelet properties change in aging individuals which is an important consideration as well. 350c69d7ab